Tag Archives: boat speed

Elements of Close Quarters Maneuvers for all boats part 4 of 7

Well, here we are again. Welcome to part 4 of 7 in the series Elements of Close Quarters Maneuvering.

So far, we have discussed analyzing wind and current prior to approaching the slip, the transmission position and why neutral is our friend, as well as the throttle and its horrible ability to take us to the insurance claim. Today, we will look at our general direction and why we need to determine our immediate goal of direction.

Remind me, what is Advance and Transfer?

If you recall, I introduced the notion of advance and transfer in our last conversation about close quarters maneuvering. As a review, advance is the boat continued forward progress in it’s original direction as it progresses through a turn, and transfer is the distance the boat travels laterally until it is established on it’s new course.

Generally, when we are executing a back and fill turn (standing turn to sailors) we want to minimize both advance and transfer. In other words, we would like to pivot the boat in place without making any forward, reverse, or lateral progress. In a no current no wind scenario we would progress down the fairway, center the pivot point of our boat, rotate, and then pull into the slip. Yeah, that happens in Disneyland, but rarely in our world.

In the event that there is wind or current impacting us as we are trying to get into our slip, and when isn’t there, we can use advance and transfer to our advantage. There are times when it is advantageous to proceed in a relatively straight line as the boat is rotating to its position to maneuver into the slip. This is particularly true if we want to enter the slip stern first.

Step-by-step Application Example

Let’s take a look at an example. With the boat proceeding forward, the wind on its stern, and the slip to port the best option may be to start rotating the bow to starboard about a half boat length prior to arriving at the first outboard piling of the slip. This piling will ultimately be the starboard bow piling.

As the boat proceeds forward put the transmission into reverse at idle speed and move the helm to full starboard. By rotating the helm to full starboard we can accomplish two things. First, if we need to create additional rotation we are ready; simply move into the second step of a back and fill turn (see part three of this series to learn more about back and fill turns). Second, if we need to “squirt” the stern to port a little to clear the piling, that can be accomplished by applying forward throttle for a very short duration (AND I DO MEAN VERY SHORT, like a quarter of a second) and returning to reverse idle; the boat’s stern will lunge to port six inches to a foot, and move forward just a few inches.

With the transmission in reverse and the throttle at or near idle forward progress, advance, will continue and prop walk will start to drag the stern to port. Add and remove throttle as necessary to increase or decrease the rate of rotation due to prop walk. The goal is to have the stern barely clear the first piling.

As soon as the stern clears the piling, increase power slightly to stop all the boat’s forward motion and start to move in reverse.

With the boat now making way in reverse, turn the helm to port to start steering the boat into the slip. The bow may not swing fully inline with the slip. If this is the case, allow the boat to come to rest on the leeward outside pile. Once gentle contact is made, by shifting back to reverse and adding a little power prop walk will again come into play and the boat will pivot on the pile. This pivoting will cause no damage to the boat and as the pivot is complete by reducing power the pile will push the boat to windward and the boat will be clear of the pivot pile and will travel back into the slip. With proper crew placement and fender patrol (crew carrying a fender and placing it between the boat and the piling) this maneuver can be performed without using spring lines. If there is no piling present the pivot can be accomplished on the corner of the dock. Care should be taken to assure a fender is lowered into place if the dock corner is not padded.

In the example above we utilized advance to our advantage and minimized transfer, but what if we had the slip on our starboard side. What then? Well, now we have a problem. We do not have the ability to utilize prop walk in this case. And, if we try to back down the fairway, the wind now on the bow, so that we can use prop walk, the bow will be blown around by the wind.

Furthermore, if the finger pier is on the upwind side of the slip we have an even more complicated entry. This entry; starboard side with wind blowing down the fairway, off the finger pier; is the most difficult slip entry there is. Our choices here are very limited. You know, some times all of the options suck and this may be one of those times.

Probably our best option, if we have good knowledgeable crew, would be to warp the boat into the slip, but we haven’t talked about warping yet so let’s forget that option.

Option # 1

Bow first. I like this choice because it allows us to make progress into the wind, stern first. Here’s how I would do it. Proceed down the fairway as in example one except favor the starboard side. As the boat reaches the windward outer pile, shift into reverse with a little throttle. Doing this will stop forward motion (advance) and start prop-walk.

As the stern of the boat starts to rotate to port the boat will start to move backward. This backward motion will hold the boat on station against the wind while it is rotating. When the maximum rotation has been achieved rotate the rudder to full starboard as you shift into neutral, pause briefly, and finally shift to forward with significant throttle. It is critical that the significant throttle be maintain only for a brief period of time. We want to lunge the bow to starboard, not move the boat forward (maximize transfer and minimize advance.)

When the lunge is complete return the throttle to idle or near idle. This allows the boat to progress forward into the slip. At the same time bring the helm to a slightly starboard position to allow the boat to make progress toward the finger pier where crew can step off making fast an aft spring-line from mid-ship.

As the crew step off, turn the helm away from the dock. With the aft spring-line made, continue to steer away from the dock in forward idle. Prop-wash will bring the entire boat along side the finger pier where crew can properly secure her.

Option # 2:

Stern first: This maneuver requires that the boat enter the slip in reverse utilizing significant power. It goes against everything we have spoken about so far in this series. You should only do this if you are on a first name basis with your insurance adjuster.

In this method the boat is brought down the fairway bow first favoring the starboard side. Continue past the slip two or three boat lengths. Shift to reverse with a little throttle. The goal here is to get water flowing past the rudder as soon as possible to overcome the prop-walk. With this slight throttle the boat will start making reverse way into the wind. While maintaining the reverse way steer into the slip.

The hazard with this method is obviously the considerable amount of way the boat is making. There is a lot of momentum driving us into the slip and toward the finger pier. There has to be to push against the wind. You MUST be ready at any moment to shift to neutral, set the helm to whatever position you deem necessary, and then shift to forward to stop all of the unwanted momentum the boat has developed.

This is really risky and should only be considered as a last resort. You know, there’s always another option, it just may be inconvenient. Be inconvenienced, this method is just not worth the risk.   It will turn you from a hero to a zero in about three seconds. In fact, forget you read about it.

Option # 3:

Call the dock-master and ask for another slip assignment: Keep in mind that you only look like an a#%hole when you hit the dock. Your insurance company, and marina neighbors are counting on you to know your limits. If you’re not sure of them, now is not the time to find them. Simply call the dock-master and explain the situation and ask for another slip with a less challenging entry. He will be happy to help.

Option # 4:

Ask the dock-master for multiple hands to receive lines: With the land-side help in place proceed down the fairway favoring the port side. Pass the slip and execute a back and fill turn (standing turn to you sailors). Have crew ready on the port side of the boat with dock-lines; stern, mid-ship, and bow; in hand, coiled and ready to throw. Execute prop walk to bring the stern into the slip. The bow will blow downwind. The dock-hand handling the bow-line will wrap the it around the outermost pile or cleat and be able to control the bow with that line as the boat reverses into the slip.

Me, I like option #1, 3, and 4. Option #2 sucks, period. Practice makes perfect and if you never push against your limits they never will expand. Just remember, it’s one thing to push, and quite another to steamroll. Don’t steamroll!

I always look for the hard way to enter a slip. I do that so that when it really is a tough entry it won’t seem that bad to me. In other words, I practice all the time. So should you. Till next time, I’ll see you On the Water…With Captain Frank

SAILING NAKED!!!! (Learn to sail without Electronics) knot log

This entry is part 2 of 3 in the series Sailing Naked

Today we will continue on our quest to find the freedom and guts to go sailing naked.   What instrument are we going to eliminate today?  I vote for the knot-log.

knot log

So, what exactly is the knot log?

The knot log is a transducer that protrudes from the bottom of our boat usually located ahead of the keel on or near the centerline.   It is important for the knot-log to be out front in clear water so that the water flow across it is the same no mater what tack or point of sail we are on.   The log has a paddle wheel that spins as the boat travels through the water.   It works just like the anemometer that we spoke about yesterday.   Unfortunately, unlike the anemometer, the knot-log is vulnerable to being fouled by barnacles and debris in the water.   It is also notorious for being inaccurate.   There are new designs that help to eliminate this problem but they are still not the norm.  The knot-log gives very different information than your GPS.   It measures our boat’s speed through the water while the GPS measures our boats speed across the ground.  

You ever find yourself sailing along and all the sudden realize that the boat feels just awesome?   When we have our sails trimmed correctly and the boat on the correct point of sail it just feels right.   Guess what, we’re probably sailing the boat as fast as it can go at that moment.   When was the last time you went sailing and said, “Hey, I think I want to slow down”?   That just doesn’t happen.   When sailboats are hauling butt they’re going 6.   That’s already slow, right? Most of us want to go “fast”, so slow just isn’t a skill we want to develop although many of us seem to have a natural ability to accomplish it.   When the boat is “fast” it has that awesome feel.   We don’t need to have a digital display flashing in our face telling us what we already can feel.  

We should be able to be at the helm in a comfortable position, with the boat at the optimum angle of heal (about 12 degrees), the rudder at 3 or 4 degrees to leeward and the wheel being held loosely between our thumb and pointer finger.   If that’s not going on then there are only three things to look at and they are:   Sail trim, amount of sail up and point of sail.  

Sail trim:

If our sail trim is poor the boat will be slow.   Most sailors tend to overtime their sails.   The tendency is to trim in to far.   This will “bind up” the boat and may well increase weather helm.   All well designed boats have a tendency to turn into the wind.   This is a good trait that adds to safety (if there is a problem at the helm the boat turns into the wind and slows or stops) and the ease of steering (by giving the helmsman a little pressure to “feel the rudder” with).   But as with most things in life, too much of a good thing is not good.   With over-trimmed sails we need to apply more rudder angle to keep the boat sailing straight.   More rudder angle equals more drag and that equals 5th or 6th place at the end of the race.   Under-trimmed sails means we are giving away power and drive.   Proper trim will allow the boat to sail fast.

Amount of sail set:

This is really an extension of sail trim.   Regardless of how well we trim our sails if we simply have too much or too little sail exposed to the wind the boat will be slow.   Obviously if there is not enough sail out the boat will be underpowered.   Being underpowered will make us sail at a lower angle to the wind (sail fat). It takes sailing fat to get the boat speed to where we expect it, so while the boat speed may be okay our journey to the free rum (directly upwind) will take longer and that equals slow.   The opposite problem is too much sail out and that will make us overpowered.   If we are overpowered we will experience an excess of weather helm. We counter-act that weather helm by turning the rudder leeward. Keeping the rudder turned increases drag and slows the boat tremendously (it is also exhausting to hold the helm against the added pressure).   In the worst case picture the rudder is unable to hold the boat on course and it will round up into the wind.   Now, that’s really slow.   It is important for us to get to know our boat and discover what amount of sail is appropriate for the wind conditions on any particular day.  

Incorrect point of sail:

If we have deployed the correct amount of sail and we have trimmed those sails perfectly for sailing close-hauled but we are sailing on a close reach then our boat speed will be terrible. It is crucial to be sailing on the point of sail that we think we are.   Our talk yesterday explained how to be sure we are sailing the way we want.   Go back and read it again if you are having trouble with this. All of this aside, does it really matter whether we are sailing at 5.2 or 5.4 knots.   At the end of the day we will be where we want.   Our trip planning skills prevented us from planning a trip based on speed that closely monitored.   Didn’t it?   How could we plan for that level of accuracy anyway?   Ever here of current?   So, if we spend a great day of sailing with proper sail trim, proper deployment of sail and on the point of sail that we say were on we will get our boat from point A to point B as quickly as possible.  

Go practice, better yet get an instructor and go practice.   By doing so, these things will become second nature and you’ll have more fun on the water.   Knot-log? Knot now!   Ah, I can smell that freedom comin my way.   Naked sailing here we come.   See ya tomorrow On the Water…With Captain Frank