So, Sailing Florida and I, Captain Frank, held our first Instructor Evaluation Clinic (IQC) recently. In fact, the clinic ran from June 5th through the 9th. It was five long days of hard work, hard decisions, lots of stress on the part of the candidates, and I think all would agree, a good time.
The clinic encompassed four levels of certification, Basic Keel Boat (101), Basic Coastal Cruising (103), Bareboat Chartering (104), and Coastal Navigation (105). There were 4 candidates, 3 from various parts of Florida–Ron, Joe, and Rick, and one from Puerto Rico—Guillermo.
Some had previous teaching experience; Rick and Joe were US Sailing instructors and Ron works for a maritime museum on the panhandle of Florida. Guillermo was the only candidate that had not ever taught before. All brought with them qualities and knowledge that was shared and enjoyed by everyone attending including myself.
Very early in the clinic the candidates have to demonstrate single-handed sailing. This includes all maneuvers that are taught in ASA101 from raising sails to crew-overboard-recovery. They all showed me very quickly that they were experienced and accomplished sailors.
Also, they all showed me that they had not studied the ASA’s methods. As the week wore on they continued to demonstrate knowledge of the various subject matter that was assigned to them. But, most didn’t teach that material utilizing ASA terminology and methods.
In one case at the end of the lesson I told the candidate I thought the lesson was excellent. In all aspects he had done a great job, great class involvement, voice tones, use of aids, blah blah blah blah blah. I simply didn’t agree with a word he said. He taught his “students” the way that he does it. Not the way the ASA does it. The ASA teaches concrete methods that always work. Many of us as sailors do things our way. Sometimes like this and sometimes like that. Often with many variables and gray areas. We can’t teach to new students that way. We need to give them concrete techniques for doing things; methods that work every single time. He passed that lesson. Why? Because, it was a great lesson. But, he didn’t pass it until he demonstrated to me in his next lesson that he took my words to heart and ran that great class with correct subject matter and methods.
See, I do have a heart deep down inside. I recognized his abilities, told him where he fell short, and warned him (as well as his fellow compadres) that they all better hit their books that evening. He did, in fact they all did. They just hadn’t comprehended the goal of the ASA–to teach a proven curriculum with standardization from school to school worldwide. Quite frankly, they simply didn’t read the ASA materials. Once they got the ASA idea they modified their lessons and proved to me that they had what it takes.
In the end, I was able to, in good conscience, award the certifications that they sought. It took a lot of teaching on my part (not my job in an IQC) and scrambling on their part (to learn the ASA way). Some came into this challenge with good teaching skills and some learned those skills while here. That’s okay, see, it is the candidate that has raw talent and is willing to shut-up and learn rather defend the indefensible that I want to see advance on to become an ASA instructor. Those folks will carry that humility and understanding forward to their students. It is those folks that will attempt again and again, each time using a different method, to teach their students some idea, concept, or technique that they are struggling with. That, my friends, is being a teacher.
This being my first IQC (to run), I wasn’t quite sure what to expect. Now I know. I should expect to be really tired, to be frustrated, to teach and demonstrate more than I think I will need to, and to be very rewarded. These guys worked their asses off for five days. They never complained about extra hours we spent and they never balked at some tough criticism. I know how hard it is because I’ve been there many many times.
Anyone that knows me knows that I don’t ever give away gift certification, which was ten fold true for these guys. These four guys earned their certifications the hard way. They worked for it. I hope that they carry that forward to all their future students. I’m very proud of them and I’m glad to call them fellow ASA instructors. Job well done, Joe, Rick, Ron, and Guillermo! Job well done!
Well, here we are again. Welcome to part 4 of 7 in the series Elements of Close Quarters Maneuvering.
So far, we have discussed analyzing wind and current prior to approaching the slip, the transmission position and why neutral is our friend, as well as the throttle and its horrible ability to take us to the insurance claim. Today, we will look at our general direction and why we need to determine our immediate goal of direction.
Remind me, what is Advance and Transfer?
If you recall, I introduced the notion of advance and transfer in our last conversation about close quarters maneuvering. As a review, advance is the boat continued forward progress in it’s original direction as it progresses through a turn, and transfer is the distance the boat travels laterally until it is established on it’s new course.
Generally, when we are executing a back and fill turn (standing turn to sailors) we want to minimize both advance and transfer. In other words, we would like to pivot the boat in place without making any forward, reverse, or lateral progress. In a no current no wind scenario we would progress down the fairway, center the pivot point of our boat, rotate, and then pull into the slip. Yeah, that happens in Disneyland, but rarely in our world.
In the event that there is wind or current impacting us as we are trying to get into our slip, and when isn’t there, we can use advance and transfer to our advantage. There are times when it is advantageous to proceed in a relatively straight line as the boat is rotating to its position to maneuver into the slip. This is particularly true if we want to enter the slip stern first.
Step-by-step Application Example
Let’s take a look at an example. With the boat proceeding forward, the wind on its stern, and the slip to port the best option may be to start rotating the bow to starboard about a half boat length prior to arriving at the first outboard piling of the slip. This piling will ultimately be the starboard bow piling.
As the boat proceeds forward put the transmission into reverse at idle speed and move the helm to full starboard. By rotating the helm to full starboard we can accomplish two things. First, if we need to create additional rotation we are ready; simply move into the second step of a back and fill turn (see part three of this series to learn more about back and fill turns). Second, if we need to “squirt” the stern to port a little to clear the piling, that can be accomplished by applying forward throttle for a very short duration (AND I DO MEAN VERY SHORT, like a quarter of a second) and returning to reverse idle; the boat’s stern will lunge to port six inches to a foot, and move forward just a few inches.
With the transmission in reverse and the throttle at or near idle forward progress, advance, will continue and prop walk will start to drag the stern to port. Add and remove throttle as necessary to increase or decrease the rate of rotation due to prop walk. The goal is to have the stern barely clear the first piling.
As soon as the stern clears the piling, increase power slightly to stop all the boat’s forward motion and start to move in reverse.
With the boat now making way in reverse, turn the helm to port to start steering the boat into the slip. The bow may not swing fully inline with the slip. If this is the case, allow the boat to come to rest on the leeward outside pile. Once gentle contact is made, by shifting back to reverse and adding a little power prop walk will again come into play and the boat will pivot on the pile. This pivoting will cause no damage to the boat and as the pivot is complete by reducing power the pile will push the boat to windward and the boat will be clear of the pivot pile and will travel back into the slip. With proper crew placement and fender patrol (crew carrying a fender and placing it between the boat and the piling) this maneuver can be performed without using spring lines. If there is no piling present the pivot can be accomplished on the corner of the dock. Care should be taken to assure a fender is lowered into place if the dock corner is not padded.
In the example above we utilized advance to our advantage and minimized transfer, but what if we had the slip on our starboard side. What then? Well, now we have a problem. We do not have the ability to utilize prop walk in this case. And, if we try to back down the fairway, the wind now on the bow, so that we can use prop walk, the bow will be blown around by the wind.
Furthermore, if the finger pier is on the upwind side of the slip we have an even more complicated entry. This entry; starboard side with wind blowing down the fairway, off the finger pier; is the most difficult slip entry there is. Our choices here are very limited. You know, some times all of the options suck and this may be one of those times.
Probably our best option, if we have good knowledgeable crew, would be to warp the boat into the slip, but we haven’t talked about warping yet so let’s forget that option.
Option # 1
Bow first. I like this choice because it allows us to make progress into the wind, stern first. Here’s how I would do it. Proceed down the fairway as in example one except favor the starboard side. As the boat reaches the windward outer pile, shift into reverse with a little throttle. Doing this will stop forward motion (advance) and start prop-walk.
As the stern of the boat starts to rotate to port the boat will start to move backward. This backward motion will hold the boat on station against the wind while it is rotating. When the maximum rotation has been achieved rotate the rudder to full starboard as you shift into neutral, pause briefly, and finally shift to forward with significant throttle. It is critical that the significant throttle be maintain only for a brief period of time. We want to lunge the bow to starboard, not move the boat forward (maximize transfer and minimize advance.)
When the lunge is complete return the throttle to idle or near idle. This allows the boat to progress forward into the slip. At the same time bring the helm to a slightly starboard position to allow the boat to make progress toward the finger pier where crew can step off making fast an aft spring-line from mid-ship.
As the crew step off, turn the helm away from the dock. With the aft spring-line made, continue to steer away from the dock in forward idle. Prop-wash will bring the entire boat along side the finger pier where crew can properly secure her.
Option # 2:
Stern first: This maneuver requires that the boat enter the slip in reverse utilizing significant power. It goes against everything we have spoken about so far in this series. You should only do this if you are on a first name basis with your insurance adjuster.
In this method the boat is brought down the fairway bow first favoring the starboard side. Continue past the slip two or three boat lengths. Shift to reverse with a little throttle. The goal here is to get water flowing past the rudder as soon as possible to overcome the prop-walk. With this slight throttle the boat will start making reverse way into the wind. While maintaining the reverse way steer into the slip.
The hazard with this method is obviously the considerable amount of way the boat is making. There is a lot of momentum driving us into the slip and toward the finger pier. There has to be to push against the wind. You MUST be ready at any moment to shift to neutral, set the helm to whatever position you deem necessary, and then shift to forward to stop all of the unwanted momentum the boat has developed.
This is really risky and should only be considered as a last resort. You know, there’s always another option, it just may be inconvenient. Be inconvenienced, this method is just not worth the risk. It will turn you from a hero to a zero in about three seconds. In fact, forget you read about it.
Option # 3:
Call the dock-master and ask for another slip assignment: Keep in mind that you only look like an a#%hole when you hit the dock. Your insurance company, and marina neighbors are counting on you to know your limits. If you’re not sure of them, now is not the time to find them. Simply call the dock-master and explain the situation and ask for another slip with a less challenging entry. He will be happy to help.
Option # 4:
Ask the dock-master for multiple hands to receive lines: With the land-side help in place proceed down the fairway favoring the port side. Pass the slip and execute a back and fill turn (standing turn to you sailors). Have crew ready on the port side of the boat with dock-lines; stern, mid-ship, and bow; in hand, coiled and ready to throw. Execute prop walk to bring the stern into the slip. The bow will blow downwind. The dock-hand handling the bow-line will wrap the it around the outermost pile or cleat and be able to control the bow with that line as the boat reverses into the slip.
Me, I like option #1, 3, and 4. Option #2 sucks, period. Practice makes perfect and if you never push against your limits they never will expand. Just remember, it’s one thing to push, and quite another to steamroll. Don’t steamroll!
I always look for the hard way to enter a slip. I do that so that when it really is a tough entry it won’t seem that bad to me. In other words, I practice all the time. So should you. Till next time, I’ll see you On the Water…With Captain Frank